- According to Mishra & Koehler (2006), “merely introducing technology to the educational process is not enough.” Why is it not enough? What other matters or concerns teachers should look into and consider in relation to use and integration of instructional media and technology?
Introducing technology to education is simply not enough. Technology integration is a process that teachers need to develop and understand. The approach must be holistic and should take into account, not only the educational context, but the broader social and cultural context of the use of such technology. That way, you can show the student the theoretical bigger picture meaning and example, instead of a myopic view of the use of the technology.
- How can the understanding of TPACK framework help teachers effectively integrate technology in teaching? How can teachers develop their TPC knowledge?
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. TPACK is more than just the knowledge of all the three concepts (Technology, Pedagogy, Content) individually. There has to be mastery of the relationship and intersections between all the components, and every learning scenario should be considered unique, as no simple combination of TPC will apply for all situations. This will help teachers provide “truly meaningful and deeply skilled teaching with technology”.
- Give an example or describe a situation wherein TPC knowledge is effectively applied in teaching? Explain why you think this is a good illustration of TPACK.
As part of my current role in the company I work for, I provide sales support and I am often invited to join client sales presentation. Just recently, all client-facing executives were required to undergo a 2-day training class on Business Storytelling. I attended it along with a few of my colleagues.
The training was very interesting and enlightening. It was very relevant to the work we do and we all took away meaningful learning from the 2-day session. I will use TPC to give the highlights of the training.
Technology – the facilitators demonstrated effective use of Powerpoint, Keynote and other Presentation tools, at the same time, discussed with the class how to effectively choose and use the right tool for the right audience.
Pedagogy – Learning by doing approach. Most of the activities were breakout sessions, where the trainees were asked to prepare and present different topics and services to other executives who acted as clients.
Content – Well-organized and succinct agenda, covering important topics such as Storyboarding, Social Styles of Audience, Freytag Pyramid, ICE model, etc.
What made the training very effective was how the components blended altogether, with the facilitator displaying in action the very same concepts the training was intended for.
Topic: Early Introduction to Algebraic Concepts
Grade/Year level: Kinder
Duration: 1 week
Class Size: 8-10 students
ASSURE Learning Model
A – Analyze learners
S – State objectives
S – Select instructional methods, media, and materials
U – Utilize media and materials
R – Require learner participation
E – Evaluate and revise
General characteristics – The class is Kindergarten 1. They are evenly split between the sexes. Their ages range from 5½ to 7 years old. All coming from an upper middle class area in the city, their primary means of communications is English. They are all very active and highly physical in their expressions and preferred activities.
Entry characteristics – They all like working with their hands. Everyone is proficient in counting from 1 to 20 and most can legibly write the same numbers. They can follow multiple step instructions.
Learning style – They are very collaborative and prefer to work with others in groups. They tend to be more attentive when there is an element of fun and play in the activities. They prefer being assessed on what they can physically do rather than answering a test on paper.
The goal of the curriculum is to introduce the key concepts in Algebra at the early stages of schooling to develop individual thinking and cognitive process to prepare them for higher levels of Algebra teachings. At the end of the course, the goal is for the students to be able to apply the concepts in their everyday practical lives, with the things they see around them, enhance the assimilation of these concepts in their thinking process, and as a result, lay the foundations as they progress to more complex mathematical concepts they will move into in school.
The specific objectives are as follows:
- For students to Learn Patterns based on simple attributes.
- For students to Learn Relations between objects based on simple attributes
- For students to learn Reproducing and Repeating Patterns of Numbers.
Select instructional methods, media, and materials
Methods – All activities will be done through group activities. The three main activities are the following:
- Identifying attributes of objects as foundations for Sorting and classifying
- Sort and classify objects by color, shape, size, number, and other properties.
- Counting by fives and tens at least up to 50.
Media and Materials type – The activities will utilize items that are available within the classroom such as toys, books, boxes, and in different shapes and sizes. The students will also be asked to bring a few everyday items from home such as buttons, shells, keys, etc. The teacher will ensure a few sets of items that are all the same but in different sizes, and/or different colors.
Utilize media and materials
Environmental preparation – All materials will be placed on the floor in a certain part of the classroom that is easily accessible by the students. The teacher will need to ensure safety and keep away materials that may be breakable and can injure students.
Audience preparation – Students will be asked to group themselves. The teacher should introduce each activity as a game to gain excitement and full participation from every student.
Require learner participation
Activities to do – For each of the sub-topics, the activities are the following:
1a – Students will identify classroom items by common attributes such as color or shape and place objects that share the same attribute on mats together.
1b – Have a classroom scavenger hunt in which small groups of student have to find a variety of items defined by their common attribute such as three yellow items or two square items.
2a – Collect items from home and school that reflect various types of patterns. Create a classroom “Pattern Museum” to house the collection.
2b – Students will sort buttons, shells, or keys with a partner and identify groups that share common characteristics such as color, shape, size, or texture.
3a – While standing in a circle, students will jump while counting by 5s or l0s with each jump.
3b – Students will stand on large number line or number cards. As teacher counts out loud by 5 or 10, students sit down as their number is called.
Evaluate and Revise
Assesment and Evaluation of learner achievement – The following outcomes will be the basis of evaluation:
1a – Children will explain their reason for placing objects on mats and identify the colors or shapes they used as attributes for sorting.
1b – Each small group will report back to the whole group about the items that they found and what common attribute they shared.
2a – Children will assume roles of visitors and museum workers. They will develop series of questions and answers about patterns that could occur in a “Pattern Museum.”
2b – Using a recording sheet, children will be able to draw the items in their group and demonstrate the common attribute/s of the group in their drawing.
3a – Teacher observation of increasingly accurate skip counting while jumping.
3b – Children will visually review seated children with teacher support to confirm accurate skip counting.
Koehler, M. J. (n.d.). TPACK explained.
Available at http://www.matt-koehler.com/tpack/tpack-explained/
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x.
The ASSURE Learning Model Lesson