Multimedia Resources (Module 7 EDS 151)

Multimedia is defined to be a presentation of content or materials through the combined use of words (verbal) and pictures (pictorial). In the Learning context, the rationale of using Multimedia is that it takes full advantage of both verbal and visual processing of information by the learner.

Multimedia has come a long way. In the Philippines, especially the younger ones of the population, are now very exposed to multimedia technology. Our addiction to gadgets and social media also translates to our addiction to multimedia content. This makes it a very important tool for education.

To make effective use of multimedia in education, designing instructions plays a make or break role. Instructional designers should be able to incorporate best practices in education, instructional technology, and human computer interaction to create a useful and effective online learning environment for students.

To be more specific, the design and development of a multimedia module should consist of five phases:

  • Understand the learning problem and the users needs
  • Design the content to harness the enabling technologies
  • Build multimedia materials with web style standards and human factors principles
  • User test
  • Evaluate and improve design

 

Reference:

Designing High-Quality Interactive Multimedia Learning Modules (Huang, C. (2005). Designing high-quality interactive multimedia learning modules. In Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 29, 223-233. Available at https://cset.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/files/documents/publications/Huang-Designing%20hih-quality%20interactive%20multimedia%20learning%20modules.pdf)

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Internet Resources (Module 6 – EDS151)

During the last elections, we saw an influx of social media propaganda and along with it were several websites popping up as sources of news and information. Unfortunately, we also saw how internet users in the country fall prey into believing that these were reliable and credible sources of information.

It has become more important for users to be wary and be guided in evaluating web pages as sources of information. Doubly critical when it comes to using internet resources for education. Both students and teachers should be guided appropriately in their evaluation.

 

According to a tutorial called “How I can tell if a website is reliable?” from the College of Education in the University of Texas in Austin, for a researcher to evaluate the quality of each website, he or she should ask the 5 basic questions:

  • Who authored (wrote) the site?
  • Who published the site?
  • What is the main purpose of the site? Why did the author write it and the publisher post it?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • What is the quality of information provided on the website?

From your answers to these questions, you should conclude on how the all add up.

Reference:

Tutorial: How I can tell if a website is reliable? from the College of Education in the University of Texas in Austin

Accessed at https://www.edb.utexas.edu/petrosino/Legacy_Cycle/mf_jm/Challenge%201/website%20reliable.pdf

 

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EDS 151 Activity 2 (Mod 3)

One of the most talked about topic on social media these days is Republic Act 10913, better known as the Anti-Distracted Driving Act. This was finally implemented in full effect starting this week. When news first came out, there were lots of questions and confusion about this law. The MMDA decided to put out an informational primer, both online and printed handout, in attempt to educate the public. Based on the design principles discussed in this module, I will try evaluate its effectiveness.

distracted-620x861

Consider the audience and the purpose – First of all, the target audience for the primer is the general motoring public. I think this would have been more effective if delivered in Filipino.

Consider the content – There is an attempt to make it simple, but considering the many questions raised about the law, the content does not help and may raise more questions. For example, it simply states that making or receiving calls is prohibited, when the law in fact allows hands-free calling.

Layout of the page –  Showing a picture of a car dashboard is effective in driving the point about where you are allowed to place a device. However, the placement of the text boxes within the image does not give importance to the message.

Consider the Typography – Poor contrast and poor choice of font and color.

 

Image Source:

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/911318/mmda-every-instance-of-distracted-driving-to-be-fined

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Voice Over Text (Module 5 – EDS151)

The article on Using audio in teaching and learning, by JISC Digital Media in 2013, stated that Audio can be used to enhance text resources, for example, providing comments or context to an academic paper. It can engage students’ attention when studying on their own or when learning difficult subject matter. Adding voice to text documents can also help enrich resources by including additional information, such as context or tone. The rationale for this is undeniable. Dale’s Cone of Experience tells us that we remember or retain more what we hear than what we read, and further down the cone is what we hear and see. After all, we take in more through sight and sound more than any other senses.

In a previous blog I made for another course, I shared my own experience with using sound over simply reading text. According to Wikipedia, a text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech. So if you have this feature, reading becomes more fun. Instead of just reading, you are actually hearing. I have decided early on that I was going to employ this tool in my reading requirements. The ibook app in my ipad has this built in as a feature. You just have to highlight the text you need to read, the whole page for example, and a pleasant female voice will read the text to you.

From an article on Learning styles on the Cortland.edu webpage, and loosely based on Dale’s Cone of Experience, Multi-sensory approaches work well because of the way our brain is organized. We retain information as follows:

  • 10% of what they read
  • 20% of what they hear
  • 30% of what they see
  • 50% of what they see and hear
  • 70% of what they say
  • 90% of what they say and do

For someone who lives a very busy life, with lots of distractions, I found that employing audio, even during my own reading sessions, really facilitates engagement that I don’t get by just reading.

References:

JISC Digital Media. (2013). Using audio in teaching and learning. Retrieved from http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/guide/using-audio-in-teaching-and-learning/
Post, K. (n.d.). Using sound in the classroom. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/5524
Recording audio voiceovers for teaching and learning materials. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/guide/recording-audio-voiceovers-for-teaching-and-learning-materials
Learning Styles. Retrieved from http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/learning/Introduction.htm

 

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The Best and Worst of an Instructional Visual Material (Module 4 – EDS151)

Powerpoint has become the standard “tool of the trade” for business meetings, training classes, and even school classrooms nowadays. Original designed for Macintosh computers, the application was developed in 1987 and was bought by Microsoft on the same year.  PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or “slides”. The “slide” analogy is a reference to the slide projector. It provides numerous features that offer flexibility and the ability to create a professional or academic presentation. The ease of use can save a lot of time for people who otherwise would have used other types of visual aid—hand-drawn or mechanically typeset slides, blackboards or whiteboards, or overhead projections. Ease of use also encourages those who otherwise would not have used visual aids, or would not have given a presentation at all, to make presentations.

Most of my experience in using Powerpoint is when attending corporate presentations and training classes at work. I have probably either presented or have been part of an audience of thousands of presentation in my work for over a decade. Thus, I have seen the best and the worst use of the tool. The criteria or considerations for a successful use of powerpoint can probably be summed up in three:  Relevance to the learning outcome, Presentation or Instructional Strategy, and Learners or Audience Characteristics. Of the three, most of the time it’s the strategy that spells success, and this covers both the preparation and the delivery of the presentation.

I came across an interesting blog on the web by Brian Nelson that I think describes some of the worst things you can do with a Powerpoint presentation. I was somewhat amused how accurate these are based on my experience and would like to share it along with what I think they mean.

Top 5 Worst Things To Do In A PowerPoint Presentation

By Brian Nelson

  1. Reading Your Slides To The Audience – Unless your class doesn’t know how to read, provide talking points to your slides instead of reading off from them. Provide high points of the slide and stress on the more important points
  2. Infinite Clutter – Too much graphics and pictures may distract the class from the point of the slide. Make it simple and add only necessary graphics.
  3. Transitioning to Transitions With Transitions Until The Transitions Are Transitioned – Don’t be tempted to use too much animation in slide transition unless it’s a kindergarten class and you want to keep their attention.
  4. Worthless Graphics, Images, Graphs, WordArt, SmartArt, etc … – PowerPoint comes loaded with tons of amazing ways to jazz up your presentation with high impact visuals. Just make sure they are high impact and not highly annoying.
  5. Auuurrrrrggggghhhh, I Wish I Was Color Blind! – Select you color themes on your templates wisely, and make sure it matches the mood and temperament, as well as appropriate to you audience or class.

The instructional media can make or break a learning activity depending on how it is used. The key is “integrating” the media or presentation in your teaching strategy, rather than letting the media do the teaching.

References:

Pluralsight Blog. Top 5 Worst Things To Do In A PowerPoint Presentation.
http://blog.pluralsight.com/improve-your-powerpoint-presentation

Wikipedia. Microsoft PowerPoint
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint

Arizona State University. (n.d.) Media Selection Models. Retrived from
http://www.florencemartin.net/site08/research/Media%20Selection%20Models%20-%20ASU.pdf

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EDS 151 Activity 1 (Part 1 & 2)

Part 1

  1. According to Mishra & Koehler (2006), “merely introducing technology to the educational process is not enough.” Why is it not enough? What other matters or concerns teachers should look into and consider in relation to use and integration of instructional media and technology?

Introducing technology to education is simply not enough. Technology integration is a process that teachers need to develop and understand. The approach must be holistic and should take into account, not only the educational context, but the broader social and cultural context of the use of such technology. That way, you can show the student the theoretical bigger picture meaning and example, instead of a myopic view of the use of the technology.

  1. How can the understanding of TPACK framework help teachers effectively integrate technology in teaching? How can teachers develop their TPC knowledge?

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. TPACK is more than just the knowledge of all the three concepts (Technology, Pedagogy, Content) individually. There has to be mastery of the relationship and intersections between all the components, and every learning scenario should be considered unique, as no simple combination of TPC will apply for all situations. This will help teachers provide “truly meaningful and deeply skilled teaching with technology”.

  1. Give an example or describe a situation wherein TPC knowledge is effectively applied in teaching? Explain why you think this is a good illustration of TPACK.

As part of my current role in the company I work for, I provide sales support and I am often invited to join client sales presentation. Just recently, all client-facing executives were required to undergo a 2-day training class on Business Storytelling. I attended it along with a few of my colleagues.

The training was very interesting and enlightening. It was very relevant to the work we do and we all took away meaningful learning from the 2-day session. I will use TPC to give the highlights of the training.

Technology – the facilitators demonstrated effective use of Powerpoint, Keynote and other Presentation tools, at the same time, discussed with the class how to effectively choose and use the right tool for the right audience.

Pedagogy – Learning by doing approach. Most of the activities were breakout sessions, where the trainees were asked to prepare and present different topics and services to other executives who acted as clients.

Content – Well-organized and succinct agenda, covering important topics such as Storyboarding, Social Styles of Audience, Freytag Pyramid, ICE model, etc.

What made the training very effective was how the components blended altogether, with the facilitator displaying in action the very same concepts the training was intended for.

 

 

Part 2

Subject: Mathematics

Topic: Early Introduction to Algebraic Concepts

Grade/Year level: Kinder

Duration: 1 week

Class Size: 8-10 students

 

Introduction

ASSURE Learning Model

A – Analyze learners

S – State objectives

S – Select instructional methods, media, and materials

U – Utilize media and materials

R – Require learner participation

E – Evaluate and revise

 

Analyze learners

 

General characteristics – The class is Kindergarten 1. They are evenly split between the sexes. Their ages range from 5½ to 7 years old. All coming from an upper middle class area in the city, their primary means of communications is English. They are all very active and highly physical in their expressions and preferred activities.

Entry characteristics – They all like working with their hands. Everyone is proficient in counting from 1 to 20 and most can legibly write the same numbers. They can follow multiple step instructions.

Learning style – They are very collaborative and prefer to work with others in groups. They tend to be more attentive when there is an element of fun and play in the activities. They prefer being assessed on what they can physically do rather than answering a test on paper.

 

State objectives

The goal of the curriculum is to introduce the key concepts in Algebra at the early stages of schooling to develop individual thinking and cognitive process to prepare them for higher levels of Algebra teachings. At the end of the course, the goal is for the students to be able to apply the concepts in their everyday practical lives, with the things they see around them, enhance the assimilation of these concepts in their thinking process, and as a result, lay the foundations as they progress to more complex mathematical concepts they will move into in school.

The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. For students to Learn Patterns based on simple attributes.
  2. For students to Learn Relations between objects based on simple attributes
  3. For students to learn Reproducing and Repeating Patterns of Numbers.

 

Select instructional methods, media, and materials

Methods – All activities will be done through group activities. The three main activities are the following:

  1. Identifying attributes of objects as foundations for Sorting and classifying
  2. Sort and classify objects by color, shape, size, number, and other properties.
  3. Counting by fives and tens at least up to 50.

Media and Materials type – The activities will utilize items that are available within the classroom such as toys, books, boxes, and in different shapes and sizes. The students will also be asked to bring a few everyday items from home such as buttons, shells, keys, etc. The teacher will ensure a few sets of items that are all the same but in different sizes, and/or different colors.

Utilize media and materials

Environmental preparation – All materials will be placed on the floor in a certain part of the classroom that is easily accessible by the students. The teacher will need to ensure safety and keep away materials that may be breakable and can injure students.

Audience preparation – Students will be asked to group themselves. The teacher should introduce each activity as a game to gain excitement and full participation from every student.

Require learner participation

Activities to do – For each of the sub-topics, the activities are the following:

1a – Students will identify classroom items by common attributes such as color or shape and place objects that share the same attribute on mats together.

1b – Have a classroom scavenger hunt in which small groups of student have to find a variety of items defined by their common attribute such as three yellow items or two square items.

2a – Collect items from home and school that reflect various types of patterns. Create a classroom “Pattern Museum” to house the collection.

2b – Students will sort buttons, shells, or keys with a partner and identify groups that share common characteristics such as color, shape, size, or texture.

3a – While standing in a circle, students will jump while counting by 5s or l0s with each jump.

3b – Students will stand on large number line or number cards. As teacher counts out loud by 5 or 10, students sit down as their number is called.

 

Evaluate and Revise

Assesment and Evaluation of learner achievement – The following outcomes will be the basis of evaluation:

1a – Children will explain their reason for placing objects on mats and identify the colors or shapes they used as attributes for sorting.

1b – Each small group will report back to the whole group about the items that they found and what common attribute they shared.

 

2a – Children will assume roles of visitors and museum workers. They will develop series of questions and answers about patterns that could occur in a “Pattern Museum.”

2b – Using a recording sheet, children will be able to draw the items in their group and demonstrate the common attribute/s of the group in their drawing.

 

3a – Teacher observation of increasingly accurate skip counting while jumping.

3b – Children will visually review seated children with teacher support to confirm accurate skip counting.

 

Reference:

TPACK Explained

Koehler, M. J. (n.d.). TPACK explained.

Available at http://www.matt-koehler.com/tpack/tpack-explained/

 

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x.

Available at http://onlinelearningcurriculumcommittee.pbworks.com/f/mishra.pdf

 

The ASSURE Learning Model Lesson

http://nculazarus.pbworks.com/f/ASSURE+Learning+Model+Lesson.pdf

 

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Pros and Cons of Print (Module 3 – EDS151)

For those who grew up and went to school before computers and the internet, printed materials were the main form of instructional media. These are the textbooks, workbooks, and handouts that aid a teacher in delivering content in a traditional classroom setting. We have seen effective printed materials, and we’ve seen bad ones too. In the article on Instructional Media: Handouts and Printed Materials of the handbook for NUS teachers, the main objections to printed materials are summarized into 4 major points:

  1. Students become distracted and inattentive and not write their own notes
  2. They tend to spot and focus on examination questions
  3. Students become dependent and not attend class
  4. They do not read beyond the content as outlined and highlighted

We have since moved to more digitalized classrooms where students are now more exposed to individual tablets, powerpoint presentation and other multimedia resources to aid in instructions. Despite all the advancements, a lot of teachers still resort to printed handouts mainly because it’s the most accessible and the most inexpensive. McAlpine & Weston in 1994 summarize how to effectively use print media in 5 elements:

  1. Organization – Structure and Format should be well-organized
  2. Cueing – Cues to help reader locate information on the material
  3. Readability – Appropriate for students based on age, knowledge, level, etc.
  4. Pacing – Rate of transition from one topic to next should facilitate understanding
  5. Accuracy – Like any other media, content should be accurate.

Printed media won’t be obsolete anytime soon, as long as these elements are put in mind when producing such materials. There will still be more students on campus with folded handouts in their backpockets, than those with tablets.

References:

Instructional media: Handouts and printed materials. Retrieved from
http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/handbook/media/handout.htm

Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services. (2002). Selecting media for the diverse classroom: A handbook for teachers, 4-7. Retrieved from
www.cpt.fsu.edu/ese/pdf/mediasel.pdf

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